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What Is Substance Abuse Treatment?

If a person in your family is addicted to alcohol, heroin, cocaine, prescription medications, marijuana, or other drugs, then it will affect your family. Millions of people living in the United States are dependent on either alcohol or drugs. But with substance abuse treatment, there is hope. Many people recover completely. There are many symptoms of a person who is addicted to drugs or alcohol. One of the major symptoms or signs is that the person will continue to use that drug or alcohol even though there have been major negative consequences because of that use. Instead of acknowledging where the problem actually resides, they will blame other people or situations even though the problem is their addiction. For instance, a person could say that the reason that they got fired was because the managers or owner is stupid. Or a person might say that the reason they got a driving under the influence ticket was not because they were drinking and driving, but because the cops were targeting them specifically.

Some of the biggest signs are not always immediately evident. For instance, a person will develop a high tolerance, which basically means that they will need more and more of the drug or alcohol in order to get drunk or high. Another sign is if they crave the drug or alcohol. They will have a very strong need to keep using the drug and will often be anxious or irritable if they are not able to assuage their craving. Another major sign is if the person has a physical dependence on the drug that they are using. What this means is that they will actually go through withdrawal symptoms if they do not have access to the drug or alcohol. These withdrawal symptoms include sweating, shaking, nausea, and major anxiety. People with these signs probably need substance abuse treatment.

Many different people can provide substance abuse treatment. These programs have specially trained professionals and caregivers that are certified or licensed to counsel and treat people for their addiction. Some of these counselors might actually be people who have recovered from addiction to a drug or to alcohol. The professionals might be a mix of counselors, doctors, nurses, social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists. When a person enters a program, they usually go through an assessment. This test will help the professionals figure out the type of treatment that will be the best for them and then it helps them figure out what kind of plan they will use. There will also be frequent reassessments to figure out how well the person is going through the program and if the plan needs to be altered in some fashion to better serve the patient. The plan might include a medically supervised withdrawal. This basically means that the person will be monitored while they put their body through detoxification. The reason that it needs to be monitored by medical professionals is that going through that process can be dangerous, and a person might have convulsions, hallucinate, or other dangerous things.

Short and Long-Term Effects of Nicotine on Health

Nicotine is an active chemical substance present in tobacco that contributes to the negative reputation of tobacco. This chemical, when abused (through smoking or chewing) has harmful effects on the human body and it is also found to be as addictive as illegal drugs. The below are a few harmful and addictive effects of nicotine on humans, later followed by long and short-term effects.

Harmful effects:
Tobacco harms every organ of the body. It affects lungs, heart, kidneys, digestive system, liver, eyes and many other vital organs in the body. Further, people who smoke tobacco get their sense of smell and taste weakened.

Also 'passive smoking' or 'secondhand smoking' harms non-smokers. The tobacco smoke contains harmful chemicals. When inhaled by non-smokers in the smoker's proximity, it causes coughing, phlegm and decline in the functionality of the lungs. Studies show that it can cause heart diseases even among non-smokers who are subjected to secondhand smoking.

Addictive effects:
Nicotine is absorbed into the body when an individual smokes or chews tobacco. Nicotine causes elevation of mood. This is the principal reason for nicotine causing addiction. The nicotine absorbed by a smoker reaches the brain via blood. This leads to numerous chemical reactions in the brain and causes feeling of high. It lasts for a short span. Once the nicotine level declines, there is no longer the high-feeling. To have a similar feeling again, the smoker has to smoke again, thus it causes addiction.

Short-term effects of tobacco:
In the short-term, nicotine is found to cause high blood pressure, increased pulse rate and cough. The abuse of nicotine also has immediate effects on oral cavity which causes bad breath and staining of teeth. In severe cases, it may also lead to oral cancer.

•Bad breath: Smoking tobacco or chewing tobacco causes severe bad breath in the individual. Bad breath is because the nicotine, tar and other chemicals in tobacco get deposited in your oral cavity. The chemicals in tobacco drastically reduce the formation of saliva in your mouth, causing dry mouth, thus leading to the growth of odor causing bacteria.

•Stained teeth: When you smoke or chew tobacco, the chemicals like tar, nicotine and others burn and undergo chemical reaction producing sticky substances. When you take the smoke in by inhaling, the sticky substances in the smoke get deposited on your teeth and thus cause stains.

•Smoker's cough: Coughing is a protective physiological mechanism in order to remove irritants from the body, especially from the respiratory tract. Smoking damages cilia, the protective structure in the respiratory tract. When Cilia becomes defunct, harmful particles like dust, the chemicals from tobacco, etc. are deposited in the respiratory tract. Over a period of time, the body removes the accumulation of these foreign substances by coughing. Thus, the smoker suffers from heavy cough.

•Increased heart rate and blood pressure: Nicotine causes increased heart rate and blood pressure. This is because nicotine reduces oxygen supply to the heart and thus makes it less functional. Further, it makes blood vessels narrow because of the formation of blood clots. It thus, causes increased workload on the heart; hence, there is increased heart rate. All these factors cause increased blood pressure.

Long-term effects:
Long-term effects of nicotine include addiction, increased risk of heart diseases, and decline in insulin levels, cancer and premature aging. Long-term effects of nicotine are very harmful and may also lead to fatalities in many cases.

Addiction and dependence: As the effect of nicotine on the body is temporary, to enhance the feeling the smoker gets addicted and dependent on the drug in the long-term. Further, the body develops tolerance to the chemical, and thus needs increased amount subsequently and thus perpetuates the intake causing addiction and dependence in the long-term.

Increased risk of heart diseases: There is increased risk of heart diseases in the long-term due to nicotine addiction. Nicotine causes narrowing down of the blood canals. It is because nicotine gets attached to its receptor proteins in the blood vessel and stays there and thus causes constriction of blood canals.

Also, in the long-term, nicotine damages the lining of blood vessels that leads to deposition of cholesterol in the blood vessels. This may ultimately lead to a heart attack.

Inhibits the release of insulin: Nicotine leads to reduction in the secretion of insulin that is essential in absorption of carbohydrates in the body. Normally, when the glucose level rises because of food intake, insulin comes to the rescue by reducing the glucose levels. In smokers, this is not the case; insulin is released in less quantity. When glucose levels are present in higher levels than required in blood, it may cause harm to the heart and kidneys.

May lead to cancer: Nicotine as a causative substance of cancer is debatable. The other chemicals in tobacco like tar containing cyanide, benzene, formaldehyde, etc. are said to cause cancer. These chemicals are released in the body when tar enters because of smoking, over a long period.

Premature aging:
Smokers look older than they actually are. This is because of the effect of nicotine on the production and functioning of antioxidants in the body - responsible for fighting free radicals in the body formed due to environmental pollution, stress, etc. Antioxidants make the skin and other soft tissues look young.

By all accounts, nicotine has destructive effects on every part of your body - be in the short or long-term. Hence, a strict warning indeed to non-smokers is to never experiment with it!

Is It Relapse or Post Acute Withdrawal Syndrome (PAWS)?

I was recently providing individual counseling to a patient who had just completed both inpatient and outpatient treatment for alcohol dependence. During our session she was giddy, energetic, demonstrated mood liability, cognitive problems, memory problems, and some physical coordination problems. My first thought was -I wonder if she has relapsed. Then I caught myself and reminded myself about PAWS. This syndrome is a set of persistent impairments that occur after withdrawal from alcohol, opiates, benzodiazepines and other psychotropic drugs.

Common PAWS symptoms include:

• Mood swings, depression, anxiety, panic attacks

• Psychosocial dysfunction/Impaired interpersonal skills

• Anhedonia (the inability to feel pleasure from anything besides drug use)

• Insomnia/Sleep disturbances

• Suicidal ideation, pessimistic thoughts, feelings of guilt and shame

• Excessive fatigue, excessive thirst, light-headedness, fainting

• Impaired concentration/Lack of initiative, Intense drug cravings

• Memory problems/general cognitive impairment/inability to think clearly

• Emotional overreactions or numbness

• Physical coordination problems

• Stress sensitivity/Increased sensitivity to pain

It is estimated that PAWS occurs in over 90% of people withdrawing from a long-term opioid abuse (such as heroin addiction), and about 75 % of persons recovering from long-term abuse of alcohol, methamphetamine, or benzodiazepines. It occurs less frequently with abuse of other psychotropic drugs.

The length of time PAWS symptoms linger varies from person to person. Symptoms of PAWS can last from a year to several decades, and some symptoms remain can indefinitely. The presence of symptoms vacillates between periods of relative remission, intermittent presence of symptoms and highly symptomatic periods. However, by the end of one year, most 'clean & sober' persons have returned to their baseline levels of functioning and the symptoms of PAWS dissipate.

Some believe the symptoms of PAWS occur because the brain's ability to react to stress has been weakened by long-term substance abuse. PAWS may be a result of the adaptations in the central nervous system and changes in the brain's communication system. Drug-related disruptions in the 'normal' communication between neurotransmitters and hyperexcitability of neuronal pathways may be an underlying cause. Research has demonstrated that when a person's drug abuse becomes an addiction, there are structural changes that occur in the brain.

It is important for treatment providers, 12-step sponsors, and the friends and family of the recovering person to keep PAWS in mind when interacting with the recovering person. The symptoms of PAWS sometimes mimic mental health symptoms, behaviors/symptoms that occurred during the person's active use, and mimic acute withdrawal symptoms from recent use.

This situation with my patient reminded me how important it is to balance knowing the high likelihood and incidence of relapse for recovering persons, knowing the relapse 'red flags' to watch for, and knowing that PAWS sometimes mimics the signs of relapse.

Health and Fitness: Drug Abuse Article Category

The adverse effects of smoking can be quite widespread. Smokers usually experience a decrease in their ability to take in and use oxygen effectively, which means that they will have less physical stamina than nonsmokers. When they do exercise, they will likely only be able to do so for short periods of time. Although some of the harmful effects that are associated with smoking can be reversed, men and women will have to carefully give up the habit and stay away from cigarettes in the following years.

Most medical experts agree that smoking also leads to a range of diseases, some of which can be fatal. Cancer is the most obvious one. Tobacco contains a number of carcinogens that can change the genetic material within cells over time. Eventually, this can lead to mutations and malignant tumors. Beyond cancer, however, smokers are also more likely to develop diabetes and even heart disease. If heart disease is already prominent within the family, cigarettes will only exacerbate the risk. Significant hardening of the arteries can eventually lead to a coronary event, which can be potentially life-threatening. Smokers who find that they have high blood pressure or high cholesterol may be strongly advised by their doctors to make a serious attempt to break the habit.

If men and women enjoy certain physical activities, they may find that years of smoking may prevent them from doing these. For instance, running, swimming, and backpacking all require strong and healthy lungs. Because smoking breaks down the lung components over time, smokers will tire quite easily. A few laps in the pool may become an extreme physical event. If individuals have also been diagnosed with asthma, smoking can make this condition much worse. They will likely have to carry an inhaler with them at all times. In the most extreme cases, people may require an oxygen tank to help them breathe. Deficiencies within the both the respiratory and circulatory systems are common with lifelong smokers.

Ultimately, the effects of smoking can be quite profound over time. Men and women will find themselves confined to their homes more and more. Though they may still be able to manage some shorter bursts of physical energy, they will likely be out of breath when they finish. As their physicians will also remind them, they will also be more likely to develop several serious health conditions. Most specialists now agree, in fact, that smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer in individuals of all ages. Despite all this, there are effective treatment plans that can help people finally break the habit.

The information contained in this article is provided for informational purposes only and is not, nor is it ever intended to be, a substitute for professional medical advice or professional recommendations, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician(s) or other qualified healthcare provider(s).

Kids and Drugs - Five Ways to Spot Inhalant Abuse

When you think about the term inhalant abuse (such as sniffing glue, turpentine, gasoline, etc., etc.) you usually start to picture the homeless, or pour lost souls that are already lost of hope. But the actuality of it all is that it is far different than what many people picture, and far much scarier. Around 17 million American's have stated they have used inhalants at least one time the most common age of this experiment is during later childhood and early teens, around the pre-teen ages.

What exactly is inhalant abuse?

Kids partake in activities such as sniffing glue, or other volatile chemicals like gasoline. They experience an intense high like a feeling of intoxication, which resembles being drunk. While they may appear to be drunk on the outside the intensity of the high or intoxication from inhalant abuse is much more high and stronger, which puts kids at more of a risk for impaired judgment and accidents occurring because of this. This makes it much more troubling that the risks are increased for acute danger and accidents and chronic health damages.

What does inhalant abuse cause?

Inhalant abuse can cause many major health issues such as deadly heart failure, there have been some reports of kids dying from their first experiment with inhalants. Constant or chronic use of inhalants can lead to brain damage, and damage to virtually all of the organs in the human body, which puts them at an increase for cancers. Much of the damage when it is caused is always irreversible.

The solvents used in inhalants are also very addicting, and kids that are trying out glue sniffing put themselves at risk for dependency and an increase of abuse with many additional health risks.

Because younger aged kids have a tough time getting other types of drugs inhalants is much easier for them to get their hands on as they are readily available at home or easily purchased in stores. Parents need to be aware of the signs of inhalant abuse and never ignore any of them, because the risks of this type of abuse are so extreme, it is important to get professional help immediately if you suspect any signs of abuse.

The five warning signs to watch out for.

  1. Inhalant items in their room, school bags, or other items they own such as old spray cans, or tubes of glue. Another sign is their bags smelling like glue or other solvents.

  2. A chemical type smell on your child or in their clothes. Unless your kid is working late night hours in a factory there shouldn't be a reason for their close to smell of chemical smells.

  3. Different stains on their faces that look unusual. Kids that abuse inhalants will usually spill small parts of those substances on their clothes and may even have small traces on their face from inhaling from bags.

  4. Loss of appetite: Those that abuse inhalants regularly will have negative effects on their hunger. It is unusual for healthy kids that are growing to be lacking in the hunger department.

  5. The appearance of intoxication. You should never ignore such an obvious sign of intoxication thinking that your kids are too young to be experimenting with any substances.

If you suspect that your child is a victim of teenage drug abuse you may consider enlisting the services of a private detective. Private detective services can help find useful information and clues as to what exactly is happening in your child's life.

Effective Treatments for Inpatient Alcohol Rehab

Inpatient Alcohol rehab centers are the kind of rehab centers which treats the patients who are severely addicted to alcohol and need 24 hours surveillance. During an inpatient treatment program the patient is kept under constant supervision. In this process the patient is kept in a different environment where they are kept under vigilance and proper care all the time. Furthermore, the patients are being detoxified and proper medication is provided by the doctors. The programs here are well structured and follow a rigid routine format. In addition to proper medication, the patients are taught to adapt new situations and how to deal with the withdrawals that comes after quitting alcohol. Mostly inpatient alcohol treatment's duration is 30 days but in some cases it can be stretched to 60 to 90 days also.

Some of the techniques used under this method are effective detoxification, abstinence, eating disorder treatment, pain treatment and guidance to deal with addiction. One of the first steps taken in this procedure is to detoxify the patient. It is the process where the alcohol residues are eliminated from your body and the body normalizes itself after becoming physically dependent on alcohol. This procedure follows a very strict regime and don't give the patient any chance to run away from the rehab center. The patients have to follow a set of rules and instructions without any fail. Before taking such intense treatment the patients many a time have to go through an assessment test to prove that they can go through such a treatment. Some of the practices used during this treatment are:

• Group therapy: During this therapy the addicted person can discuss their problems with others and got to learn things from them and build a social setting that crates a support system.
• Reality therapy: It teaches the person to control the things which they and to learn to deal with things which they cannot.
• Cognitive behavioral therapy: It teaches the addicted person the actions can be controlled and moreover they should be controlled.
• Psychotherapy: It finds about the underlying causes and triggers that provokes the addicted to drink and diagnoses co- occurring situations, manages denial
• Family therapy: During this procedure the family member are involved and teaches them about how to cope with the addicted person in their family.

You should always have the knowledge that recovering from addiction to alcohol will take some good amount of time and won't happen instantly. You need to give both the rehab center and the patient some time so that they can be able to cope with the addiction and recover from it efficiently and effectively. A large number of people have been benefited by taking services from these inpatient alcohol rehab centers. Since there are a good number of these rehab centers available nowadays, it is important on your part to do some enquiries and go for the one which you think is suitable for your needs and budget.